• Outline of Visit
  • The 6th Asian Youth Day
  • Overview of Beatification
  • Lives of the 124 Korean Martyrs
  • Mass for Peace and Reconciliation
  • Places will be visited by the Holy Father
HOME > Pilgrimage > Overview of Beatification
Rise up in splendor! (Isaiah 60,1)

The Canonization of 103 martyrs in 1984 was a great bliss and glory for Korea Catholic Church.

    In spite of this canonization, it was a great regret that not all of the early Korean Catholic martyrs had yet to be beatified and canonized. The Conference of Bishops' Bicentennial Commission and each diocese started to proceed with the beatification and canonization of the martyrs, and finally at the 1997 Autumn General Assembly, it was decided to jointly promote the Beatification and Canonization of the martyrs together.

    Several meetings had been held for the Beatification from 1998 to 2000, which were presided over by Augustinus Kim Jong-su, the secretary of the Conference of Bishops. At the 2001 Spring General Assembly, the Conference of Bishops was specified as the petitioner for the Beautification with the Most Rev. Michael Pak Jeong-il, the Bishop of Masan as the President. On the 18th of October 2001, the year of 200th Anniversary of the Shinyu persecution, the bishops decided to establish the 'Episcopal Special Commission' to promote the Beautification of the Korean martyrs, which finally resulted in holding a research court on the 5th of July 2004.

    Then it extended to the 'summons for the witnesses', 'presentation of documentary evidences', 'field investigations on public respect', 'publicizing legal documentation', 'presentation of supplemented evidences', ‘presentation of translated documents', 'creating duplicates and comparison of documents', and the 'closing of courts'. On the 20th of May 2009 after 36 courts, the Catholics of Korea completed to investigate for the Beautification and Canonization.

    The 124 martyrs, the servants of God are as follows : 3 during the Shinhae Persecution(1791), 3 during the Eulmyo Persecution(1795), 8 during the Jeongsa Persecution(1797), 53 during the Shinyu Persecution(1801), 1 in 1814, 12 during the The Eulhae Persecution(1815), 2 in 1819, 4 during the Junghae Persecution(1827), 18 during the Gihae Persecution(1839), 19 during the Byungin Persecution(1866), 1 in 1888.

    Martyrs of the Shinyu Persecution(1801) hold the central place in this Beautification. Martyrs of the Gihae and Byungin Persecutions were left out in the Canonization of 1984, but with the newly investigated evidences, the martyrs having been exalted in each dioceses were finally included in this Beautification.

[The Shinhae Persecution(1791) : 3 martyrs]
1791.12  Paul Yun Ji-chung(first beheaded martyr in Korean Catholic history), James Gwon Sang-yeon in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1793.01  Peter Won Si-jang in Hongju, Chungcheong-do

[The Eulmyo Persecution(1795) : 3 Martyrs]
1795.06  Paul Yun Yu-il, Matthias Choe In-gil, Saba Ji Hwang at police headquarters Seoul
            (They secretly worked to invite Father James Zhou Wen-mo, a Chinese priest and help him. They were arrested but professed their faith in God to the end.)

[The Jeongsa Persecution(1797) : 8 Martyrs]
1798.07  Paul Yi Do-gi in Jeongsan, Chungcheong-do
1799.  Francis Bang and Lawrence Pak Chwi-deuk in Hongju, Chungcheong-do
            Peter Jeong San-pil in Deoksan, Chungcheong-do
            James Won Si-bo, Francis Bae Gwan-gyeom in Cheongju, Chungcheong-do
1800.01    Martin In Eon-min, Francis Yi Bo-hyeon in Haemi, Chungcheong-do

[The Shinyu Persecution(1801) : 53 Martyrs]
1801.03  Peter Jo Yong-sam at governor’s office Gyeonggi-do
1801.04  John Choe Chang-hyeon, Augustine Jeong Yak-jong, Francis Xavier Hong Gyo-man, Thomas Choe Pil-gong, Luke Hong Nak-min outside Small West Gate, Seoul.
            (Having died on the same day, Peter Yi Seung-hoon has excluded from the Beautification with some different views on his martyrdom. He has to be studied more historically and theologically.)
            Marcellinus Choe Chang-ju, Martin Yi Jung-bae, John Won Gyeong-do in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do.
            James Yun Yu-o in Yanggeun, Gyeonggi-do.
1801.05  Peter Choe Pil-je, Lucia Yun Un-hye, Candida Jeong Bok-hye, Thaddeus Jeong In-hyeok, Jeong Cheo-lsang outside Small West Gate Seoul
1801.04  (via lunar calendar) Barbara Sim A-gi at police office
1801.05  Father James Zhou Wen-mo at Saenamteo Seoul
            (The first martyrdom as a missionary of Joseon dynasty)
1801.07  Columba Gang Wan-suk, Susanna Gang Gyeong-bok, Matthew Kim Hyeon-u, Bibiana Mun Yeong-in, Juliana Kim Yeon-i, Anthony Yi Hyeon, Ignatius Choe In-cheol, Agatha Han Sin-ae outside Small West Gate Seoul
            Agatha Yun Jeom-hye in Yanggeun, Gyeonggi-do
            Barbara Jeong Sun-mae in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do
1801.05  (via lunar calendar) Barnabas Kim I-u at police office Seoul
            Paul Yi Guk-seung in Gongju, Chungcheong-do
1801.08  Andrew Kim Gwang-ok in Yesan, Chungcheong-do
            Peter Kim Jeong-duk in Daeheung, Chungcheong-do
            Stanislaus Han Jeong-heum in Kimje, Jeolla-do
            Andrew Kim Cheon-ae in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
            Matthias Choe Yeo-gyeom in Mujang, Jeolla-do
1801.10  Francis Kim Jong-gyo, Philip Hong Pil-ju outside Small West Gate, Seoul
            Augustine Yu Hang-geom, Francis Yun Ji-heon in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1801.11  John Yu Jung-cheol(Celibate husband to Lutgarda Yi Sun-i), John Yu Mun-seok in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1801.12  Paul Hyeon Gye-heum outside Small West Gate, Seoul
1802.01  Francis Kim Sa-jip in Cheongju, Chungcheong
            Gervasius Son Gyeong-yun, Charles Yi Gyeong-do, Simon Kim Gye-wan, Anthony Hong Ik-man outside Small West Gate, Seoul
            Barnabas Jeong Gwang-su in Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do
            Thomas Han Deok-un in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do
            Simon Hwang Il-gwang in Hongju, Chungcheong-do
            Leo Hong In in Pocheon, Gyeonggi-do
            Sebastian Kwon Sang-mun in Yanggeun, Gyeonggi-do
            Lutgrada Yi Sun-i, Matthew Yu Jung-seong in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1814.12  Pius Kim Jin-hu in Haemi, Chungcheong-do
            (The great-grandfather of St. Andrew Kim Dae-geon)

[The Eulhae Persecution(1815) : 12 Martyrs]
1815.04(via lunar calendar)Agatha Magdalena Kim Yun-deok in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1815.05  Alexius Kim Si-u, Francis Choe Bong-han in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1815.(N/A)  Andrew Seo Seok-bong in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1815.12  Simon Kim Gang-i in Wonju
            Peter Ko Seong-dae, Joseph Ko Seong-un(Brothers), Francis Kim Hui-seong, Barbara Ku Seong-yeol, Anna Yi Si-im, Andrew Kim Jong-han, James Kim Hwa-chun in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1819.08  Peter Jo Suk and Teresa Kwon Cheon-rye (Celibate couple) in Seoul

[The Junghae Persecution(1827) : 4 Martyrs]
1827.06  Paul Yi Gyeong-eon in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1827.11  Paul Pak Gyeong-hwa in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1827.12  Ambrose Kim Se-bak in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1835.(N/A)  Richard An Gun-sim in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do

[The Gihae Persecution(1839) : 18 Martyrs]
1839.05  Andrew Yi Jae-haeng, Andrew Pak Sa-ui, Andrew Kim Sa-geon in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
            Job Yi Il-eon, Peter Sin Tae-bo, Peter Yi Tae-gwon, Paul Jeong Tae-bong, Peter Kim Dae-gwon in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1839.09  John Cho Hae-seong in Wonju
1839.10  Anastasia Kim Jo-i in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1839.11  Barbara Kim Jo-i in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
1839.12  Anastasia Yi Bong-geum in Jeonju, Jeolla-do(Daughter of Kim Jo-i)
            Brigid Choe in Wonju
1840.01  Protase Hong Jae-yeong, Barbara Choe Jo-i, Magdalena Yi Jo-i, James Oh Jong-rye in Jeonju, Jeolla-do
            Maria Yi Seong-rye in Danggogae, Seoul(Mother of Thomas Choe Yang-up, the second Korean priest)

[The Byungin Persecution (1866) 19Martyrs]
1866.03  Paul Oh Ban-ji in Cheongju
            Mark Sin Seok-bok in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do
1866.12  Stephen Kim Won-jung in Gongju, Chungcheong-do
1866.(N/A)  Thomas Jang in Cheongju, Chungcheong-do
            Thaddeus Ku Han-seon in Haman, Gyeongsang-do
            (Uncertain date of martyrdom is due to the Byungin Persecution's severeness)
1867.01  Anthony Jeong Chan-mun in Jinju, Gyeongsang-do
            Felix Peter Kim Gi-ryang in Tongyeong, Gyeongsang-do
            Matthias Pak Sang-geun in Sangju, Gyeongsang-do
1867.(N/A)  Benedict Song, Peter Song, Anna Yi in Seoul(Song’s family)
1868.09  John Yi Jeong-sik, Martin Yang Jae-hyeon in Busan
            Peter Yi Yang-deung, Luke Kim Jong-ryun, James Heo In-baek in Ulsan, Gyeongsang-do
            Francis Pak Gyeong-jin, Margaret Oh in Juksan, Gyeonggi-do(Married couple)
1868.10  Victorinus Pak Dae-sik in Daegu, Gyeongsang-do.

    Finally, the freedom of religion was granted to Korean Catholic in April 1888, but Peter Joseph Yun Bong-mun was martyred in Jinju with the lack of understanding of local authority.